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Belial

King Solomon before the Jinn by Jacobus de Teramo, 1473

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The Vessel of Brass

Seventy-two jinn captured by the legendary King Solomon, who imprisoned them in a brass vessel and cast it into the sea. The vessel was discovered by Babylonians, who believed it contained a great treasure. When they broke open the vessel, the demons and their legions were set free, and they returned to their home. One exception was Belial, who entered an image and delivered oracles in exchange for sacrifices and divine honors.


The Lemegeton, or Lesser Key of Solomon, is a grimoire that gives instructions for the evocation of the 72 spirits. They are also known as the Spirits of the Brazen Vessel and the False Monarchy of Demons. Combined, the spirits accomplish “all abominations.” 

The 72 spirits are, in the order they were commanded into the brazen vessel (see individual entries): 

  1. King Bael
  2. Duke Agares
  3. Prince Vassago
  4. Marquis Samigina
  5. President Marbas
  6. Duke Valefor
  7. Marquis Amon
  8. Duke Barbatos
  9. King Paimon
  10. President Buer
  11. Duke Gusion
  12. Prince Sitri
  13. King Beleth
  14. Marquis Leraje
  15. Duke Eligos
  16. Duke Zepar
  17. Count/President Botis
  18. Duke Bathin
  19. Duke Sallos
  20. King Purson
  21. Count/President Marax
  22. Count/Prince Ipos
  23. Duke Aim
  24. Marquis Naberius
  25. Count/President Glasya-Labolas
  26. Duke Buné
  27. Marquis/Count Ronové
  28. Duke Berith
  29. Duke Astaroth
  30. Marquis Forneus
  31. President Foras
  32. King Asmoday
  33. Prince/President Gäap
  34. Count Furfur
  35. Marquis Marchosias
  36. Prince Stolas
  37. Marquis Phenex
  38. Count Halphas
  39. President Malphas
  40. Count Räum
  41. Duke Focalor
  42. Duke Vepar
  43. Marquis Sabnock
  44. Marquis Shax
  45. King/Count Viné
  46. Count Bifrons
  47. Duke Vual
  48. President Haagenti
  49. Duke Crocell
  50. Knight Furcas
  51. King Balam
  52. Duke Alloces
  53. President Caim
  54. Duke/Count Murmur
  55. Prince Orobas
  56. Duke Gremory
  57. President Ose
  58. President Amy
  59. Marquis Orias
  60. Duke Vapula
  61. King/President Zagan
  62. President Valac
  63. Marquis Andras
  64. Duke Haures
  65. Marquis Andrealphus
  66. Marquis Cimeies
  67. Duke Amdusias
  68. King Belial
  69. Marquis Decarabia
  70. Prince Seere
  71. Duke Dantalion
  72. Count Andromalius

According to traditions, the jinn stood behind the learned humans in Solomon's court, who in turn, sat behind the prophets. The jinn remained in the service of Solomon, who had placed them in bondage, and had ordered them to perform a number of tasks.

"And before Solomon were marshalled his hosts,- of jinn and men and birds, and they were all kept in order and ranks." (Qur'an 27:17)

The Qur'an relates that Solomon died while he was leaning on his staff. As he remained upright, propped on his staff, the jinn thought he was still alive and supervising them, so they continued to work. They realized the truth only when Allah sent a creature to crawl out of the ground and gnaw at Solomon's staff until his body collapsed. The Qurʾan then comments that if they had known the unseen, they would not have stayed in the humiliating torment of being enslaved.

"Then, when We decreed (Solomon's) death, nothing showed them his death except a little worm of the earth, which kept (slowly) gnawing away at his staff: so when he fell down, the jinn saw plainly that if they had known the unseen, they would not have tarried in the humiliating penalty (of their task)." (Qur'an 34:14)

The Names of the Demons Who Attended Solomon Son of David They Are Seventy

They [the demons] assert that Solomon son of David, for whom may there be peace, sat [in audience] and summoned the chief of the jinn and the devils, whose name was Fuqtus, to review them. So Fuqtus taught him to know the name [of each demon], one by one, and also its influence over the sons of Adam. Then he [Solomon] imposed upon them a contract and a pledge. After he had adjured them by that pledge and they had complied, they departed. The pledges were [in] the name of Allah, Exalted, Mighty, and Magnified. They [the demons] were: Fuqtus, ‘Mrd, Kywan, Shimr‘al, Firuz, Mhaqal, Zaynab, Syduk, Jndrb, Siyyar, Zanbur, al-Da’hs, Kawkab, Hamran, Dahir, Qarun, Shidad, Sa‘sa‘ah, Baktan, Harthamah, Takallum, Furuq, Hurmiz, Hamhamah, ‘Ayzar, Mazahim, Murrah, Fatrah, al-Haym, Arhbh, Khyth‘, Khyfth, Rayah, Zuhal, Zawba‘ah, Mhtukara, Hayshab, Tq‘ytan, Wqas, Qdmnh, Mufarrish, Ayra’il, Nizar, Shftil, Dywyd, Ankara, Khatufah, Tnkyush, Misalqar, Qadim, Ashja‘, Nawdar, Tythamah, ‘Usar, Thu‘ban, Naman, Nmudrky, Tyabur, Sahitun, ‘Udhafir, Mirdas, Shytub, Za‘rush, Sakhr, al-‘Aramram, Khashram, Shadhan, al-Harith, al-Hurth, ‘Udhrah (‘Adhirah), and Faqruf.

The Names of the Seven Whose Offspring These [Demons] Were:

The first was Danhash, the first day; [then] Shakhba, the second day; Marbaya, the third day; ‘Abara, the fourth day; Mismar, the fifth day; Namudarki, the sixth day; Bakhtash, the seventh day.

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