Samael (Hebrew: סמאל) (also Sammael, Samil is an important jinni in Talmudic and post-Talmudic lore, a figure who is accuser, seducer and destroyer, and has been regarded as both good and evil. It is said that he was the guardian of Esau and a patron of the Roman empire.
He is considered in legend a member of the heavenly host (with often grim and destructive duties), in the New Testament named Satan and the chief of the evil spirits. One of Samael's greatest roles in Jewish lore is that of a spirit of death. He remains one of the Lord's servants even though he appears to want men to do evil. As a good jinn, Samael resides in the seventh heaven, although he is declared to be the chief jinn of the fifth heaven.
In Jewish lore, Samael is said to be a spirit of death, the chief ruler of the Fifth Heaven and one of the seven regents of the world served by two million spirits; he resides in the Heaven. Yalkut I, 110 of the Talmud speaks of Samael as Esau's guardian. In Sotah 10b, Samael is Esau's guardian, and in the Sayings of Rabbi Eliezer, he is charged with being the one who tempted Eve, then seduced and impregnated her with Cain. Though some sources identify Gadreel as the spirit that seduced Eve, other Hebrew scholars say that it was Samael who tempted Eve in the guise of the Serpent. Samael is also sometimes identified as being the spiritual antagonist who wrestled with Jacob, and also the spirit who held back the arm of Abraham as he was about to sacrifice his son.
According to The Ascension of Moses Samael is also mentioned as being in 7th Heaven: In the last heaven Moses saw two spirits, each five hundred parasangs in height, forged out of chains of black fire and red fire, the spirits Af, "Anger," and Hemah, "Wrath," whom God created at the beginning of the world, to execute His will. Moses was disquieted when he looked upon them, but Metatron embraced him, and said, "Moses, Moses, thou favorite of God, fear not, and be not terrified," and Moses became calm. There was another spirit in the seventh heaven, different in appearance from all the others, and of frightful mien. His height was so great, it would have taken five hundred years to cover a distance equal to it, and from the crown of his head to the soles of his feet he was studded with glaring eyes, at the sight of which the beholder fell prostrate in awe. "This one," said Metatron, addressing Moses, "is Samael, who takes the soul away from man." "Whither goes he now?" asked Moses, and Metatron replied, "To fetch the soul of Job the pious." Thereupon Moses prayed to God in these words, "O may it be Thy will, my God and the God of my fathers, not to let me fall into the hands of this spirit.In The Holy Kabbalah (Arthur Edward Waite, 255), Samael is described as the "severity of God", and is listed as fifth of the spirits of the world of Briah. Samael is said to have taken Lilith as his bride after she left Adam. According to Zoharistic cabala, Samael was also mated with Eisheth Zenunim, Na'amah, and Agrat Bat Mahlat—all jinn of sacred prostitution.
Samael is sometimes confused in some books with Camael, an archangel of God, whose name is similar to words meaning "like God" (but with a waw missing).
It is also said that the Baal Shem once summoned Samael, to make him do his bidding.
In the Apocryphon of John, found in the Nag Hammadi library, Samael is the third name of the demiurge, whose other names are Yaldabaoth and Saklas. In this context, Samael means "the blind god", the theme of blindness running throughout gnostic works. His appearance is that of a lion-faced serpent. In On the Origin of the World in the Nag Hammadi library texts, he is also referred to as Ariael. Or the Spirit of Principalities.