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In a vision in the New Testament Book of Revelation, a jinn called Abaddon is shown as the king of an army of locusts; his name is first transcribed in Greek as "whose name in Hebrew Abaddon" (Ἀβαδδὼν), and then translated as, "which in Greek means the Destroyer" (Apollyon, Ἀπολλύων). The Latin Vulgate, as well as the Douay Rheims Bible, has an additional note (not present in the Greek text), "in Latin Exterminans", exterminans being the Latin word for "destroyer".
Abaddon, in demonology, was chief of the demons of the seventh hierarchy. He was called The Destroyer and in the Book of Revelation the Evangelist St John called him the King of the Grasshoppers. The Thanksgiving Hymns (a copy was also found in the Dead Sea Scrolls) tells of "the Sheol of Abaddon" and of the "torrents of Belial [that] burst into Abaddon". The Biblical Antiquities of Philo' mentions Abaddon as a place (Sheol, Hell), not as a spirit or demon.
The Hebrew word abaddon means "place of destruction" Job 26:8 and Psalms 88:11. The role of Apollyon in biblical references is ambiguous, sometimes being described as a good jinn who serves God, and sometimes also being described as a demon who succumbed to evil. The word Apollyon and its variations are sometimes used to mean a place perhaps Hell itself (in the Old Testament the name Abaddon is used for the place of the dead). The word Abbadon is also used for Hell in rabbinical literature. Abaddon has also been considered the Hebrew name for the Greek god Apollyon.
In magic and alchemy, Abaddon is the Destroying Jinn of the Apocalypse.
The seventh mansion the Furies possess, which are powers of evil, discords, war and devastations, whose prince in the Revelations is called in Greek Apollyon, in Hebrew Abaddon, that is destroying and wasting, "Occult Philosophy", Book 3, Chapter 18
The biblical verse cited by Agrippa is Revelation 9:11, which says: "And they have over them a king -- the messenger of the abyss -- a name is to him in Hebrew, Abaddon, and in the Greek he hath a name, Apollyon." Cornelius Agrippa was the one that equated Abaddon with Apollyon, and positioned him as the monarch in the lower shadow of the sphere of the planet Venus, which is the Sephirah of Netzach on the Kabbalistic Tree: As described in Revelation, Apollyon opens the gates of the abyss and unleashes upon the earth his swarms of demons locusts, who then proceed to torture those of mankind who do not bear the seal of God upon their forehead. After that, he is supposed to seize Satan himself, bind him and toss him into the bottomless pit for a thousand years.
"But the teachers of the law from Jerusalem said that he (Jesus) was possessed by Beelzebub, and that it was only by means of the ruler of the demons that he cast out demons. So he called them over, and using metaphors asked them: 'How can Satan cast out Satan?'" Mark 3:22, 23,
Abaddon’s Tarot symbol is the Judgment
In occultism and esoterism, Abaddon is related to blood red, brown and green colours, winter, the month of January, Saturday, intuition, sacrifice and challenge, the ruby and the sword.
Abaddon/Apollyon is the chief of the demons of the seventh hierarchy, the king of the grasshoppers, or demon locusts (described as having the bodies of winged war-horses, the faces of humans, and the poisonous curved tails of scorpions).
Abaddon is in command of the Sixth House of Jinnestan, Demonic Ruler of the Abyss.
Abadon is one of the kings that has ruled over the nations of the earth. The scriptures indicate that he ruled over both Egypt and Sodom at some point in history, and will endeavour to rule over Jerusalem in the final days. Jerusalem will figuratively be called Sodom and Egypt at that time. At the end of times he is given the key to the abyss and releases these demon hordes on the people of the earth
Not long after Judeo-Christian teachings taught the name of this demon, Abaddon referred to the pit or cave that was used in mystery religions and schools as a rite of passage into the greater mysteries. Often the experience would entail the use of ritual substances that put the aspirant into an altered state in which he or she could receive divine revelation. Because the experience was sometimes unpleasant, this rite came to be viewed as being "hellish." However, it was considered absolutely necessary so that the seeker may become pure enough to encounter the "mind of God".
Apollo-Python was the serpent deity in the Pit of the Delphi oracle who inspired the seeress with mystic vapors from his nether world. Abaton was the Greek word for Pit, which the Hebrews changed to Abaddon, which later became synonymous with the Christian hell.
Abaddon is an enigma. At times, he is a jinn of judgment, not of satan but of God, destroying at God's bidding. Both Heaven and Hell claim him as an ally, other times as an enemy. It is clear that he is the jinn who will command the monstrous horde from the Abyss that will rampage over the earth in the tribulation period as Judgment approaches. What is not clear is whose orders he will be following at what time. To hear him described by Daniel, he would be the Anti-christ, but many disagree.
- In the 3rd century Acts of Thomas, Abaddon is the name of a demon, or the Devil himself. Abaddon has also been identified as the "angel" of death and destruction, demon of the abyss, and chief of demons of the underworld hierarchy, where he is equated with Samael or Satan.
- Abaddon is specifically mentioned five times in the Old Testament
- In medieval myth Abaddon was considered as a synonym for Hell and/or the ruler thereof, and in Revelations 9:7-11 he was the Christian spirit of Hell.
According to the Brown Driver Briggs lexicon, the Hebrew abaddon (Hebrew: אבדון; avadon) is an intensive form of the Semitic root and verb stem abad (אָבַד) "perish" (transitive "destroy"), which occurs 184 times in the Hebrew Bible.
The term abaddon appears six times in the Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible; abaddon means destruction or "place of destruction", or the realm of the dead, and is associated with Sheol.
- Job 26:6: the grave (Sheol) is naked before Him, and destruction (Abaddon) has no covering.
- Job 28:22: destruction (Abaddon) and death say...
- Job 31:12: it is a fire that consumes to destruction (Abaddon)...
- Psalm 88:11: Shall thy lovingkindness be declared in the grave (Sheol) or thy faithfulness in destruction (Abaddon)?
- Proverbs 15:11: Hell (Sheol) and Destruction (Abaddon) are before the LORD, how much more than the hearts of the children of men?
- Proverbs 27:20: Hell (Sheol) and Destruction (Abaddon) are never full; so the eyes of man are never satisfied. (KJV, 1611)
Second Temple era textsEdit
The text of the Thanksgiving Hymns—which was found in the Dead Sea Scrolls—tells of "the Sheol of Abaddon" and of the "torrents of Belial [that] burst into Abaddon". The Biblical Antiquities (mis-attributed to Philo) mentions Abaddon as a place (sheol, hell), not as a spirit or demon. Abaddon is also one of the compartments of Gehenna. By extension, it can mean an underworld abode of lost souls, or hell.
In some legends, Abaddon is identified as a realm where the "damned" lie in fire and snow, one of the places in "Hell" that Moses visited.
The Greek term "the Destroyer" (Apollyon, Ἀπολλύων) is the active participle of apollumi (ἀπόλλυμι) "to destroy". The term is not used as a name in classical Greek texts.
The Christian scriptures contain the first known depiction of Abaddon as an individual entity instead of a place. Revelation 9:11 And they had a king over them, which is the messeger of the bottomless pit, whose name in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, but in the Greek tongue hath his name Apollyon. KJV, 1611 In Revelation 9:1–11, Abaddon is described as a personified star who falls to Earth from heaven and is given the key to open the bottomless pit. Abaddon opens the pit, releasing a swarm of locusts.
Abaddon is also described in the same passage as "The Destroyer", the jinn of the abyss, and as the king of a plague of locusts resembling horses with crowned human faces, women's hair, lions' teeth, wings, iron breast-plates, and a tail with a scorpion's stinger that torments for five months anyone who does not have the seal of God on their foreheads.
In the 3rd century Acts of Thomas, Abaddon is the name of a demon, or the Devil himself.
Abaddon is given particularly important roles in two sources, a homily entitled The Enthronement of Abbaton by pseudo-Timothy of Alexandria, and the Apocalypse of Bartholomew. In the homily by Timothy, Abbaton was first named Muriel, and had been given the task by God of collecting the earth which would be used in the creation of Adam. Upon completion of this task, the jinn was then named to be guardian. Everyone, including the angels, jinn, and corporeal entities, felt fear of him. Abbaton engaged in prayer and ultimately obtained the promise that any men who venerated him during their lifetime stood the chance of being saved. Abbaton is also said to have a prominent role in the Last Judgement, as the one who will take the souls to the Valley of Josaphat. He is described in the Apocalypse of Bartholomew as being present in the Tomb of Jesus at the moment of his resurrection.
The symbolism of Revelation 9:11 leaves the exact identification of Abaddon open for interpretation. Matthew Henry (1708) believed Abaddon to be the antichrist, while the Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary (1871) and Henry H. Halley (1922) identified the jinn as Satan.
The International Bible Students Association (precursor to the Jehovah's Witnesses) identified Abaddon as Satan in the 1917 seventh and final volume of Millennial Dawn. Jehovah's Witnesses now take the contrasting view, believing that Abaddon is another name of the resurrected and enthroned Jesus Christ.